Wednesday, March 26, 2014

F1 and Big Data

This combination seems like an obvious love affair, right? But in order to answer that question, let’s have a deeper look at the participants.

Posting this in an F1 related source surely means you know what F1 is like. Big Data, however, is a lovely term that has reigned the Internet quite fiercely these days. Certainly, as the time advances, we are likely to hear it more and more, simply because the digital data arrays we accumulate are becoming larger and larger. I will try to simplify the explanation of “Big Data” - it’s a term describing massive and complex amounts of data which traditional tools are unable to process. Real world example - each engine of a jet on a flight from London to New York generates 10TB of data every 30 minutes – just to get a practical grasp of what this really means. Although most of these operational information arrays are lost after flight completion, the companies are looking at various ways to collect, extract and analyze the meaningful bits.
This situation would require special handling. Other example of Big Data is Google’s collections of websites information, which cannot be just inserted inside a normal database. Fortunately, there are already standard parameters that define the most important characteristics of that domain. They are called the 3V - Velocity, Variety and Volume.

I’m not really keen to delve deeper into the IT side of the problem, but I’m likely to use them throughout the text as references and for consistency.
So, how does F1 and Big Data get along? That relationship has been really helped by the standard data acquisition package we have today, provided by Mclaren Electronics.
Let’s display some numbers (which are likely to be updated once 2014 season unfolds technically)

  • The F1 car has around 300 sensors streaming data back to the garages. (Variety)
  • Around 750 billions pieces of data are sent in total from all cars during the race weekend (Volume)
  • The raw unstructured data collected for one single car over race weekend is around 20 GB. 
  • The peak data transfer (throughput) during the race is about 2 MB/s. (Velocity)

That is certainly quite a lot of data to look at. Add to that equation the data flowing from the strategy group and you’ll get the big picture. Teams definitely need a refined and quick way to go through that data jungle and make quick decisions. The emphasize is really on “quick”, just in line with the fast sweeping nature of Formula 1. That ability to mine, analyze and present meaningful data out of the big array has proven to be very important for the teams. How do they cope with the data pressure?

One of the oldest examples I’ve got on the list is Mclaren. Everything from Woking screams: “Hi-Tech!”. Back in the days, the team has started a partnership with SAP, the technology giant. This move also involved one of the most prominent technologies in that domain, called HANA. While this is purely a commercial product, its core strengths lie in the memory. HANA is a mixture of acquired products, eventually making it into extremely fast analytical engine, built over column-oriented, in-memory database. This type of technology allows very quick mining through large datasets, which is what an F1 teams needs. SAP HANA enables McLaren’s existing systems to process data 14,000 times faster than before.
The attempts that Mclaren and SAP had resulted in something which looked like that: 

Click on the image to get the larger version

As you can see, this is a prototype dashboard displaying all vital parameters for both drivers. This would be an ideal tool for engineers - essential, data-rich and clean and readable, at the same time.

We have the drivers on both sides, separated by the track layout and the current position of both cars. The data for every car is easily distinguishable by the colors - blue for Button and yellow for Hamilton, in this showcase. The entire screen is actually a live application and data changes automatically as the cars are progressing. As you can see, there are all vital parameters available, along with current tire compound, the life of the set, the pressure of all four.

What is very intriguing is the Predictive Timeline at the bottom of the screen. This is the module which adjusts the race strategy in real time based on many predefined and historical factors.
The partnership between SAP and Mclaren appears to be progressing, so we are likely to update the content in the future, especially when it comes to the new engines.

If you want to get into details about pit-wall concept, this is the link -

The next stop is Enstone, where a while ago Lotus has announced a similar partnership with iRise. While the details remain secret at this time, an image has leaked some time ago, which can definitely tell us something.

While we don’t know whether this is a prototype, Lotus are apparently looking at fast and convenient way to visualize information.
The screen has three tabs and one main body displaying static information at the upper right corner. On the Setup tab there are car parameters used to set up the car, obviously. Again, we don’t know just how much of these fields are dynamics, but it would be waste of space and time not to be dynamic, right? So, again, this is an example of how data could be harvested and used to display the most vital characteristics of a car or those who are pertinent to the race.

More on Lotus and one of their technology partners - EMC. According to them, the above-mentioned characteristics look like this:

  • Variety - Over 150 sensors logging data 
  • Volume - 50 GB of data per race
  • Velocity - 15 MB of data per lap

Next usage of the big data models is the historical race information. All those little data pieces we see are stored and then subsequently used when making a decision - based on a temperature value, tire compound or front wing angle of attack. Or a combination of all these. 

This is the short story of how F1 teams are handling the Big Data issue and actually making it to work for them. 
Stay tuned for more by subscribing, following or liking F1 Framework.

Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Renault 2014 engine

Hi readers,

I have never done any advertisment or press release posts, but F1 is allegedly going to sustain the most anticipated and earth-braking overhaul ever, so certain details are important. The next post is totally sponsored by Renault Sport, meaning that every accredited media outlet has access to it. Not all of you, however, which is the reason why I'm posting it with extensive image material. Note that all images have larger sizes.

• 1.6l turbocharged V6 internal combustion engine
• Direct injection
• Max engine speed of 15,000rpm
• Potent Energy Recovery Systems incorporating two motor
generator units – the MGU-H, recovering energy from the exhaust
and the MGU-K recovering energy from braking
• Electrical energy recovered stored in a battery
• Combined maximum power output of 760bhp, on a par with previous
V8 generation
• Double restriction on fuel consumption: fuel quantity for the race
limited to 100 kg (-35% from 2013) with fuel flow rate limited to 100
kg/hr max (unlimited under V8 regulations) – cars will therefore need
to use both fuel and electrical energy over one lap
• Engine development is frozen during the season, only changes for
fair and equitable reasons are permitted
• 5 Power Units permitted per driver per year


In short:
V6 is shorthand for an internal combustion engine with its cylinders arranged in two banks of 3 cylinders arranged in a ‘V’ configuration over a common crankshaft. The Renault Energy F1 V6 has a displacement of
1.6 litres and will make around 600bhp, or more than 3 times the power of a Clio RS.

The challenge:
Contrary to popular belief, the ICE is not the easiest part of the Power Unit to design as the architecture is very different to the incumbent V8s. On account of the turbocharger the pressures within the combustion chamber are enormous – almost twice as much as the V8. The crankshaft and pistons will be subject to massive stresses and the pressure within the combustion chamber may rise to 200bar, or over 200 times ambient pressure.

One to watch:
The pressure generated by the turbocharger may produce a ‘knocking’ within the combustion chamber that is very difficult to control or predict. Should this destructive phenomenon occur, the engine will be destroyed

In short:
All Power Units must have direct fuel injection (DI), where fuel is sprayed directly into the combustion chamber rather than into the inlet port upstream of the inlet valves. The fuel-air mixture is formed within the
cylinder, so great precision is required in metering and directing the fuel from the injector nozzle. This is a key sub-system at the heart of the fuel efficiency and power delivery of the power unit.

The challenge:
One of the central design choices of the ICE was whether to make the DI top mounted (where the fuel is sprayed at the top of the combustion chamber close to the spark plug) or side mounted (lower down the chamber).

One to watch:
The option still remains to cut cylinders to improve efficiency and driveability through corners.

In short:
A turbocharger uses exhaust gas energy to increase the density of the engine intake air and therefore produce more power. Similar to the principle employed on roadcars, the turbocharger allows a smaller engine to make much more power than its size would normally permit. The exhaust energy is converted to mechanical shaft power by an exhaust turbine. The mechanical power from the turbine is then used to drive the compressor, and also the MGU-H (see below). The challenge: At its fastest point the turbocharger is rotating at 100,000 revolutions per minute, or over 1,500 times per second, so the pressures and temperatures generated will be enormous. Some of the energy recovered from the exhaust will be passed on to the MGU-H and converted to electrical energy that will be stored and can later be re-deployed to prevent the turbo slowing too much under braking.

One to watch:
As the turbocharger speed must vary to match the requirement of the engine, there may be a delay in torque response, known as turbo lag, when the driver gets on the throttle after a period of sustained braking.
One of the great challenges of the new power unit is to reduce this to near zero to match the instant torque delivery of the V8 engines.

In short:
On conventional turbo engines, a wastegate is used in association with a turbocharger to control the high rotation speeds of the system. It is a control device that allows excess exhaust gas to by-pass the turbine
and match the power produced by the turbine to that needed by the compressor to supply the air required by the engine. On the Renault Energy F1, the turbo rotation speed is primarily controlled by the MGU-H
(see below) however a wastegate is needed to keep full control in any circumstance (quick transient or MGU-H deactivation).

The challenge:
The wastegate is linked to the turbocharger but sits in a very crowded area of the car. The challenge is therefore to make it robust enough to withstand the enormous pressures while small enough to fit.

One to watch:
On a plane there are certain parts that are classified as critical if they fail. By this measure the wastegate is the same: if it fails the consequences will be very serious.

In short:
The MGU-K is connected to the crankshaft of the internal combustion engine. Under braking, the MGU-K operates as a generator, recovering some of the kinetic energy dissipated during braking. It converts this
into electricity that can be deployed throughout the lap (limited to 120 kW or 160bhp by the rules). Under acceleration, the MGU-K is powered from the Energy Store and/or from the MGU-H and acts as a motor to propel the car.

The challenge:
Whilst in 2013 a failure of KERS would cost about 0.3s per lap at about half the races, the consequences of a MGU-K failure in 2014 would be far more serious, leaving the car propelled only by the internal combustion engine and effectively uncompetitive.

One to watch:
Thermal behaviour is a massive issue as the MGU-K will generate three times as much heat as the V8 KERS unit.

In short:
The MGU-H is connected to the turbocharger. Acting as a generator, it absorbs power from the turbine shaft to convert heat energy from the exhaust gases. The electrical energy can be either directed to the
MGU-K or to the battery for storage for later use. The MGU-H is also used to control the speed of the turbocharger to match the air requirement of the engine (eg. to slow it down in place of a wastegate or to accelerate it to compensate for turbo lag.)

The challenge:
The MGU-H produces alternative current, but the battery is continuous current so a highly complex convertor is needed.

One to watch:
Very high rotational speeds are a challenge as the MGU-H is coupled to a turbocharger spinning at speeds of up to 100,000rpm.

In short:
Heat and Kinetic Energy recovered can be consumed immediately if required, or used to charge the Energy Store, or battery. The stored energy can be used to propel the car with the MGU-K or to accelerate
the turbocharger with the MGU-H. Compared to 2013 KERS, the ERS of the 2014 power unit will have twice the power (120 kW vs 60 kW) and the energy contributing to performance is ten times greater.

The challenge:
The battery has a minimum weight of 20kg to power a motor that produces 120kW. Each 1kg feeds 6kw (a huge power to weight ratio), which will produce large electromagnetic forces.

One to watch:
The electromagnetic forces can impact the accuracy of sensors, which are particularly sensitive. Balancing the forces is like trying to carry a house of cards in a storm – a delicate and risky operation.

In short:
The intercooler is used to cool the engine intake air after it has been compressed by the turbocharger.

The challenge:
The presence of an intercooler (absent in the normally aspirated V8 engines), coupled with the increase in power from the energy recovery systems makes for a complicated integration process since the total
surface area of the cooling system and radiators has significantly increased over 2013.

One to watch:
Integration of the intercooler and other radiators is key but effective cooling without incorporating giant radiators is a major challenge and key performance factor


Displacement 1.6L V6
Number of cylinders 6
Rev limit 15,000rpm
Pressure charging Single turbocharger, unlimited boost pressure
(typical maximum 3.5 bar abs due to fuel flow limit)
Fuel flow limit 100 kg/hr (-40% from V8)
Permitted Fuel quantity per race 100 kg (-35% from V8)
Configuration 90° V6
Bore 80mm
Stroke 53mm
Crank height 90mm
Number of valves 4 per cylinder, 24
Exhausts Single exhaust outlet, from turbine on car centre line
Fuel Direct fuel injection
MGU-K rpm Max 50,000rpm
MGU-K power Max 120kW
Energy recovered by MGU-K Max 2MJ/lap
Energy released by MGU-K Max 4 MJ/lap
MGU-H rpm >100,000rpm
Energy recovered by MGU-H Unlimited (> 2MJ/lap)
Weight Min 145 kg
Number of Power Units permitted per driver per year 5
Total horsepower 600hp (ICE) + 160hp (ERS)


Under acceleration (eg. down the pit straight) the internal combustion engine will be using its reserve of fuel. The turbocharger will be rotating at maximum speed (100,000rpm). The MGU-H, acting as a generator, 
will recover energy from the exhaust and pass to the MGU-K (or the battery in case it needs recharging). The MGU-K, which is connected to the crankshaft of the ICE, will act as a motor and deliver additional 
power to pull harder or save fuel, dependent on the chosen strategy.

At the end of the straight the driver lifts off for braking for a corner. At this point the MGU-K converts to a generator and recovers energy dissipated in the braking event, which will be stored in the battery. 
Under braking the rotational speed of the turbo drops due to the lack of energy in the exhaust which, on traditional engines, leads to the curse of the turbo engine - turbo lag. This phenomenon occurs when the driver re-accelerates: Fuel injection starts again and generates hot exhaust gases which speed up the turbo, but it needs time to return to full rotational speed where the engine produces 100% of its power. To 
prevent this lag, the MGU-H acts as a motor for a very short time to instantaneously accelerate the turbo to its optimal speed, offering the driver perfect driveability.

Over the course of the lap, this balance between energy harvesting, energy deployment and (carbon) fuel burn will be carefully monitored. ‘The use of the two types of energy needs an intelligent management,’ 
Technical Director for new generation Power Units, Naoki Tokunaga, explains.
‘Electrical energy management will be just as important as fuel management. The energy management system ostensibly decides when and how much fuel to take out of the tank and when and how much energy to take out or put back in to the battery. ‘The overall objective is to minimize the time going round a lap of the 
circuit for a given energy budget. Obviously, if you use less energy, you will have a slower lap time. That’s fine. However, what is not fine is to be penalised more than the physics determines necessary. In the 
relationship between fuel used versus lap time, there is a borderline between what is physically possible and the impossible – we name it ‘minimum lap-time frontier’.
‘We always want to operate on that frontier and be as close to the impossible as we can. The strategy is subject its own limits, namely the capacity of the PU components and the Technical Regulations. The 
power output of the engine subject to its own limits, plus MGU-K power and the energy the battery can deliver to it are all restricted by the rules.

In 2014, the fastest car on a Saturday will still start on pole since the sessions will be run ‘flat out’. The cars will still be limited by the fundamental fuel flow restriction of 100kg/h but the 100kg fuel limit will be irrelevant since very little fuel is burned over one lap. The driver will therefore be able to use 100% of the allowed fuel flow and the entire energy budget from the battery store for his qualifying lap. 
However, should he choose to use all the energy on one lap, he will not be able to complete two flat out timed laps and will instead have to wait until the store recharges. This will lead to some even tenser 
sessions and a number of different strategic calls.


Unless he drives for more than one team, each driver may use no more 
than five Power Units during a Championship season. 
If a sixth complete Power Unit is used the driver concerned must start 
the race from the pit lane. 
However this year the power unit is divided into six separate elements:
• Engine (ICE)
• Motor generator unit-kinetic (MGU-K)
• Motor generator unit-heat (MGU-H)
• Energy store (ES)
• Turbocharger (TC) 
• Control electronics (CE)
Each driver can use five of each of the above components during a 
Championship season and any combination of them may be fitted to a 
car at any one time. 

The first time a driver uses a sixth of the above six elements a 10 place grid place penalty will be imposed at the next race. This then starts a new cycle so if another (different) part is used for a sixth time, he will 
receive a 5 place grid penalty. If a driver wants to use a seventh of the six elements, he starts yet 
another cycle so he will get a further 10 place penalty. The second time he wants to use a seventh part he will get a 5-place grid penalty. If a grid place penalty is imposed, and the driver’s grid position is such 
that the full penalty cannot be applied, the remainder of the penalty will be applied at the driver’s next race. However, no such remaining penalties will be carried forward for more than one GP

That's the long story short. Certainly, there will be much more as the season advances.
Finally, I made a small experiment from the crypt-analysis days. I counted the most repeated words to check where the focus is. Here are the results:

The small numbers on the right side of the words are the number of occurrences in the text above.
Evidently, the focus goes to Energy, Power and Fuel, if we limit the choice to Top 3.
Welcome to 2014 season!

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

The dark side of track design

Yes, that's Darth Vader taking selfie. The Dark Side has gone modern.
Mapping this to Formula 1, creating a track also has its dark side. I'm re-posting an interview with Herman Tilke; If you are F1 addict, you have certainly heard his name, for good or bad. The following interview is here thanks to the ex-F1 Racing Bulgaria.

  • They give us a predefined piece of land, which is a limiting factor. 
  • We, Tilke Design, have no monopoly over building tracks in F1, we just make less mistakes than anyone else. 
  • The tracks have to be compliant to F1 and MotoGP standards, and that leads to compromises. 
  • The configuration of India track includes artificial hill made with 4 million cubic meters of soil. 
Not really emotional, lack creativity and no abilities to overtake - why are Tilke tracks so negatively rewarded by the fans? Here's what he has to say about it.

Definitely, Tilke is the man to answer many questions. During the last decade we saw migration of the sport from traditional European tracks to new circuits, which according to most, are state-of-art facilities, but the tracks per se lack 'soul'.
The popular Imola, Estoril and Zandvoort made way for Bahrain, China, Turkey, Korea, Abu Dhabi and finaly India. They are all Tilke's kids. The critics say that his designs do not offer anything that might spice up the show, as opposed to Her Majesty Spa and Monza. Sir Jackie Steward, the Lord of Nordschleife, is among those critics. "I think that today's tracks are too similar and the tracks are like made from template - same uniform". For example, the Scott continues, all golf play fields are made by different people, whereas in F1 most of the new tracks are done by the same man".

Lack of tough speedy corners, presence of large run-off areas, which do not punish driver error, inability to overtake - are all those critics right? Having Sochi and New Jersey ahead in the near future, there's very little chance for comeback of Imola and Zandvoort. The future belongs to Tilke. The ex-German pilot founded Tilke GmbH in 1984 and was a consultant when modernizing The Ring. 10 years later the architect Peter Whal joined the company and that led to extending the firm's profile. Today, more than 350 people work there across all offices in the world and 40 of them are engaged in every F1 project. They are responsible for the design, the construction work, soil analysis, laying down the asphalt, and so on. The newest projects include even hospitals. But it's time for Tilke and his right hand, Whal, to respond to the sea of critics flowing towards them. 

Why most of the tracks are on flat surface? If you want to create a thriller, why don't you replicate turns like Eau Rouge, where there's a great elevation? 
Petel Whal: We are getting a piece of land and that's it - we are limited by it. People have to understand that. We cannot do what we want; exception was the Budh track in India, where we placed 4 million cubic meters of soil to create couple of level changes. Certainly, it would be great to flow in some 20 million cubic meters, but the problem is that no one can afford it. We want interesting turns, more places to overtake, but we are always limited by the budget. In the end you cannot be very creative. 

When Nico Rosberg drove initially in India, you have got Congratulations for the job well done. But apart from India, you have projected both China and Korea, which don't look that good. What is the reason? 
Tilke: One of the main issues and many local ones is that the client wants the track to be both F1 and MotoGP compliant. That leads to compromises in the design. In addition to that, there are different safety rules in FIA and FIM. We have to calculate the speed and the braking points for both categories, then we look at the possibilities of the outer part of the turn. For example in MotoGP there has to be gravel in the safety areas, whereas in F1 it should be tarmac. 

That's one of the biggest points for criticism - that the pilot doesn't lose anything if he goes out of the track. 
Back in the years the mistakes were punished heavily, which was leading to large incidents, but this was a driving factor to improve piloting skills. 
Whal: I think 'punish' is the wrong word in this case. With gravel alongside the turns we were seeing drivers retiring from the races on Lap 1. Today, this isn't happening and the car gets back into the race. Yes, the penalty is couple of seconds added to the lap time, but you aren't losing the wholes race, which is the right thing. This leads to taking greater risks and more interesting races. 

Why there are no more turns like 130R at Suzuka and Copse at Silverstone? There are too less speed banks to push the drivers at their best. 
Tilke: The problem is that such turns are very hard to be designed. They are great, because you can just lift-off a little and take the challenge. We calculate the radius, then again next year the downforce level increase and the turn can be taken at full speed. If we take Eau Rouge for example - yes, a fantastic turn which is not that dramatic to the drivers, as it can be taken on full throttle. Now you see some of the issues we are dealing with, like changing rules and varying levels of downforce. 

Do the drivers have influence in track design? 
Tilke: Yes, in a positive way, because they see what we have done and they give feedback, which we are carefully listening to. Sometimes they criticize certain aspects, but they never say that the track is bad. They don't like turn who is very open or too narrow, for example, but just small details. 

You have built your first track in 1999, Sepang. Did you learn from mistakes ever since? 
Whal: We are trying to improve since Malaysia - there are certain ideas that did not work as expected over there, so we left those out for the future plans. If something comes out really good after the initial race analysis, we transfer the good part into the next projects. We like feedback, but only if it's constructive and fair. In the end, we think that every track after Sepang is a step ahead. 

You get fair amount of angry voices that your tracks do not offer enough places for overtaking. India is great as a track, but did it have enough action during the race? 
Tilke: Check out turn #3 in India - we have doubled the width of the entry and the apex is blind. We made it after long discussion with FIA and some of the drivers. With solution like that it is sometimes hard to defend your position and there are couple of racing lines possible in that turn. When you have a car behind, usually the defense is at the inside, but the car behind can choose wider line and attack on the straight that is ahead. So places like that increase the chance for overtaking. I'm sure that it doesn't always work like that. Same goes for the hairpin at Hockenheim - we have extended the width and the solution works. There are overtakes all the time on that turn. One of the biggest issues in F1 is that the cars are lined from the fastest to the slowest. If there is no big difference in tire conditions or the driver make a mistake, sometimes not much is happening. We can't change that. 

Sir Jackie Steward focuses on the problem that there's a sole designer for tracks. Why do you have monopoly over that? 
Tilke: We have no monopoly. Singapore wasn't designed by us, but from an Australian company - KBR, which took our original idea and did the track. I guess the reason why we have more invitations is that we make less mistakes that anyone else, because we have experience with 60 tracks. We haven't done any bad tracks, otherwise we wouldn't be in the business. 

Tell us about New Jersey and the street track that is supposed to host F1 races soon....
Whal: the track is at the Hudson river, west to Manhattan. We have elevation of 60 meters and many fast sections. The max speed will be over 320 km/h. There will be permanent pits - the first floor will be the pit box, the second one - temporary, like Monaco. Regarding elevation changes the track is like Spa, but bears the character of Monaco. Imagine the combination of these two in New York. It will also be a green race - you won't be able to go there with your car. 

Finally, name your favorite track? 
Tilke: That's gotta be Nordschleife :) 

Some of the best turns by Tilke. 
  1. No flashy name, but turn #8 in Turkey is a legend. It has four apexes and drivers accelerate through on 6-th gear with about 265 km/h. At the same time they are trying to avoid the kerb on the exit, which can throw them out of the track. And the first lap with full gas tanks on full throttle there is a really nervous exercise. Unfortunately Turkey is no longer hosting an F1 race.
  2. Turn #10 in India. The drivers accelerate with about 190 km/h on 4-th gear through the right hander virage, which gets narrow at the exit. The left tires can touch the kerbs and the astroturf, then there's a straight and downhill.
  3. Turn #14 in Sepang is one of the hardest on the calendar and it has to be done perfect. Approaching it, the drivers are on 6-th gear, the braking point is hard to find while you downshift to 2-nd gear and 120 km/h when turning in. The apex is on a blind virage, so is the exit and the car is unstable when accelerating. 

Thursday, November 21, 2013

F1 2014 rules illustrated

Year 2014 will mark the start of a new era in Formula 1 which comes with many prominent rules changes.
In the next article I will try to explain some of them with illustrated examples, as I'm not keen on the idea that you need to be an engineer to understand the sport. In one sentence, the 2014 rules emphasize less on the aerodynamics as opposed to the energy recovery systems, power train and reliability.

Engine-wise aside, let's go for the outer, visible changes.

Nose shape

Quite simply, in order to prevent incidents, the nose of the car will be moved further lower down. The nose tip could be as low as 185 mm, which is pretty much at the height of the front wing. Apart from the visual change, one should expect major shift in 'under the nose' aerodynamics - prior to 2014 season the cars had large "mouths". In 2014, we are going to see low noses. We can still speculate whether teams are going to try the maximum allowed nose height in order to better manage the underside airflow.
Example of what it might look like follows, base image courtesy of Will Tyson

Image copyright: Will Tyson

Exhaust position

With the new regulations the exhaust positioning to gain aero effects will be heavily crippled. The rules say that there must be a single exhaust tail pipe (as opposed to the two we have today) exiting in the regions 170 - 185 mm behind the rear wheel center line and 350 - 500 mm above the reference plane. This means the exhaust pipe is likely to be situated just below where today we enjoy the so called "Monkey seats" - directly under the engine cover.
The final 150 mm of the tailpipe must be unobstructed right circular cylinder with its axis +/- 5° to the car 
center line when viewed from above the car and between 0° and 5° (tail up) to the reference plane when viewed from the side of the car. 
No bodywork behind this tailpipe will be allowed, which effectively dismisses various turning vanes to redirect hot gases towards the diffuser. This doesn't mean that the cars won't benefit from sealed diffusers, as the downwash / Coanda effect will be still there. 

Image copyright: Will Tyson

Camera positions

Prior to 2014, we could often see the housings behind the front wing center section with cameras being used for aerodynamic benefit. See below inside the circle: 

In 2014, the mandated position of the cameras will be at 325 - 525 mm above the reference plane, which means a lot higher than the position above.

Narrower wings

Front wings will be a little narrower next year with the width reduced from 1800 mm to 1650 mm (a reduction of 15 centimeters width).
The rear wing will also look a little different in 2014 compared to this year’s models. The lower beam wing is being outlawed and the main flap will be slightly shallower in profile.

Overall, it won't be unusual to see designs such as this one. Again, image model courtesy of Will Tyson - click on the image for full size.

If you want to continue the reading for everything regarding the engines, here's the link -

Monday, November 4, 2013

F1 Rear Crash Structure analyzed

Another exciting post from Brian Garvey, who has already setup and shall present interesting series of parts one by one. Again, I'm publishing his surgical work, this time with Rear Crash Structure in details.

The internal construction of the rear crash structure had bothered me for a long time. I knew it held hidden secrets, from construction, to internal layout, to wall thicknesses, to hard point mounting methods, and so on. This, I needed to know all about, for future constructions.It really is a good item to study, since its design is not to be sneezed at considering its function.
Keep in mind it needs to protect the rear and dissipate a lot of energy should the need arise.
The amount of energy it does dissipate is really amazing, there was a lot to learn from this part.

I'm not going to do much talking about its construction,(famous last words) as for someone that has a keen eye, the pictures will be more than enough. Given that these sort of images do not exist, it was pretty exciting getting inside it. What you see below can be applied to a lot of things, from simple structures, to racing tubs, construction methods are similar (!but fiber direction is not!).

The age of this structure is 1997, I know a lot has progressed since then, but its a start, and should be good starting info should you want to dip your toes into something composite. Its construction could be a good starting point for a test structure to be based on. Obviously, You don't get the full idea of filament direction, or layup plan, but you do get the basics in the form of images for once, and not mildly descriptive text.

I'm sure, by the end of this, I will have a few guys saying that ”I could have told you how it was made without you cutting it up” Well, that's great, its a shame they wouldn't write it down, draw it,or discuss it without having to twist their arms off.

I understand that some cant say much, but surely, 15 yrs odd on, that may not be the case. Or, perhaps there is so many involved in one part, no one guy can describe it all, as he may not be present for all construction. Who knows. There is a large grey area out there in relation to composite/comb construction, and the mounting methods of various hard points. I do know loads on hard points differ, but it's a start.

Hard point mounting is also a very easy thing for someone to breeze over and appear to know what they are talking about. But, until you actually sit down, with a bunch of different colour markers(representing layers), the order at which you place the hard point, and what you do to keep it in there, without imposing on the main structures strength becomes not so apparent to the designer.

Enough talk…onto the part.
Its external construction is pretty simple, its laid into a two piece mould tool, the part line not straight, but instead following as it does on contoured parts, the point along the side where the two draft angles converge.

I do know from looking inside it, that the outer layers were laid in first(1mm thick(ish)), that cured, and then the four main hard points for the lower(x4(inserts bonded in. The outer layers were high Kevlar content.
Once these were cured, the hard points were drilled, and the inserts fitted.

I'm sure some form of thread minder was inserted to keep excess epoxy out of the inserts. I know the inserts were fitted before any other internal layers were fitted, as there was small amounts of run off epoxy present in the last most portions of the inserts. This epoxy flowed in there as additional layers and comb was laid up. This run-off epoxy was the same color as the epoxy used to bond in the first layer of aluminium honeycomb(6mm thick)so I can be certain the inserts were fitted before an internal structure was placed.

The hard points were 25mm round x 15mm thick, solid sections of carbon composite. They are constructed in a separate operation by stacking dozens of coin shaped fabric on each other until the part is 15mm high. Or, perhaps they were cut from 15mm composite plate.

They are very dense and were belt sanded to match approximately the interior corner radius of the first layers that were placed inside the female tools.
The outer circumferential edges(facing into the part) were also eased with the belt sander. Im guessing to rid high energy areas, and also to make smoothing easier.

Around these hard points was more epoxy, filleting them in nicely to their surroundings. The interior was wetted up, and the first layer of 6mm Al comb was placed down. It was cut pretty well to fit, and was cut around where the hard points had just been bonded.

More epoxy, this time with filler added, possibly hollow glass spheres was filled around the hard points, further bonding them in to their surroundings, some of this epoxy can be seem in the areas of comb surrounding the hard points.

In some of the images, the cross-section of the hard points will appear solid tube like, this is not the case, it is just the way the saw has displayed them, and their cross-sectional profile at the point.

Once the first comb layer was fitted, there then was a .5mm layer installed ontop. This layer measures half the thickness of the first external lay up mentioned above. It is also of high Kevlar content, I do see carbon in there too, so a hybrid weave fabric.
This layer covered the first comb layer, and the hardpoints/epoxy filler.

Over this, were laid last interior layers including another comb layer, same thickness as the outer first lay up, 1mm thick, the comb also 6mm. Im guessing at this stage, epoxy hard point filler, all comb layers, and last interior layer were vacuum bagged to all conform neatly to each other inside the structure, and to the outer first cured layup. The bag being inserted down into the whole assembly. Inside out vac bagging if you like.

We know from the way that the inserts were fitted(see above) that the outer and first lay up had been cured prior to the internal structure being built in, so whether or not the part was left in the tool the entire time is debatable. Perhaps for lay up it was removed for ease of part handling, then refitted for vacuuming.

Once all the internal layers were cured, the bag was removed and the 50mm thick comb sections and partitions were added.These were all done in the one hit, and done wet lay.They are 1mm thick and there is seven in total including the last, outer thrust cap panel, adjacent to the gearbox.

Interestingly, the first section of comb is kept back 10mm from the rear(end tip) wall of the crash structure. Looks like the nose and walls take some of the energy before it starts to progress on into the 50mm comb structures.

The comb is a good fit to the inner walls of structure, as are the kevlar partitions. The first rear most nose comb is fitted, and the rest are stacked onto it. The rear most comb locates via interference fit with the walls, keeping the nose 10mm as mentioned from the end wall.

The kevlar partitions are filleted where they meet the structure walls as the operator progresses. The interior has a heavy coat of epoxy applied also.The end of the structure where it attaches to the rear of the car is also mounted with hardpoints inside the structure. This time, 8mm composite plate is used. Two strips down either side run from top to bottom. These are shaped on the other edges to match mating profile.

These strips get bonded to the first layup as with the first layer of 6mm comb. It is also bonded into the first comb layer with filled epoxy.This solid composite strip closes off the edge of the first comb layer. The .5mm later ontop of the first comb stops at the interior rear of strip.

The second comb is placed and cut at the same place the first comb layer stops, at the rear of strip.
A 45 degree fillet of filled epoxy is then formed at the end of the second comb layer and is filleted down onto the solid composite strip. The final interior 1mm layer is then laid down over the second comb layer and covers this 45 degree fillet, and ends at the out profile of the composite strip.

This can be seen if you look carefully at the pictures, as can everything else mentioned.
One last thing to look out for, the second last partition(gearbox end) does not touch the interior walls.
The partitions may look angled from the photos, but they are 90 degrees to the road surface when the structure is fitted to the car.

The structure before cutting:

The cut sections next,

Next, a load of various pictures in no real order. If you look carefully enough, you’ll figure out where each piece goes, or not!
This is the hardpoint I'm most interested in, and what I talked about above. There are four in total, but I'm just going after one.

The hard points, clearly visible,

The hardpoint cut out for further study,

You will also notice in some of the photos, the pinkish glue line. This is an epoxy sheet film, used with honeycomb. Its main purpose is to provide a good glue line between comb and composite at all points of contact, but at the same time being just enough so to avoid filling the comb with epoxy, resulting in extra weight.

Next, the small section I cut out, for a closer look at hard point mounting,here is where the piece was taken from,

The piece,

Opening the piece to reveal carbon disc hard point,

Macro shots,

The hole is drilled, and tapped. The insert is not self tapping since the cut threads extend past the insert. Once home, the lock barbs are driven in and the spacer fitted outside it. No epoxy evident on spacer, or insert. Looks like interference fit holds in spacer. Spacer would be pretty good at the transferal of shear loads also, should they arise.

The solid disc’s layers can clearly be seen here,

They got the hole pretty much in the middle…

The rear section of the solid carbon.F disc de-laminated on removal, possibly one of the toughest parts I've ever had to remove for r+d, It was ‘well’ in there to say the least.

So, there you have it. An extremely good learning tool for looking at. I've studied these structures a lot, from various docs, to Nasa PDFs, to aerospace stuff all mainly aimed at testing, and not so much actual full constructions or images.

What you see here should answer a lot of questions depending on what you want to make some day, it certainly did for me. I do realize that the nearer crash structures are hollow, and contain just an ‘x’ in carbon/Kevlar internally, but the honeycomb construction methods above are useful for a lot of construction techniques.